Research Summary Table

Resources (Research)
Bai, S., Elavsky, S., Kishida, M., Dvořáková, K., & Greenberg, M. T. (2020). Effects of mindfulness training on daily stress response in college students: Ecological momentary assessment of a randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness, 11(6), 1433-1445. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01358
Settings
College Students | Pennsylvania
Outcomes (Increases)
EMAs of first year college students showed mindfulness prevented depletion of emotion regulation (ER) in context of real-time family-related stress.
Outcomes (Decreases)
ER responses in regard to work or school stress were not impacted by intervention.
Resources (Research)
Bluth, K., Campo, R. A., Pruteanu-Malinici, S., Reams, A., Mullarkey, M., & Broderick, P. C. (2016). A school-based mindfulness pilot study for ethnically diverse at-risk adolescents. Mindfulness, 7(1), 90-104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0376-1
Settings
Alternative High School | Kentucky
Outcomes (Increases)
Credibility of mindfulness program compared to current curriculum
Outcomes (Decreases)
Depression, Anxiety
Resources (Research)
Broderick, P.C. & Metz, S. (2009. Learning to BREATHE: A Pilot Trial of a Mindfulness Curriculum for Adolescents, Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2 (1), 35-46.DOI:10.1080/1754730X.2009.9715696
Settings
Private High School | Pennsylvania
Outcomes (Increases)
Calmness; self-acceptance
Outcomes (Decreases)
Tiredness, aches and pains
Resources (Research)
Dalager, S.L., Annameier, S., Bruggink, S.M., Pivarunas, B., Coatsworth, J.D., Schmid, A.A., Bell, C., Broderick, P., Brown, K.W., Quaglia, J., Shomaker, L.B. (2018). Mindfulness-based Group Intervention for an Adolescent Girl at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Case Report. Advances in Mind Body Medicine, 32(4),9-17. PMID: 31370035; PMCID: PMC6677162.
Settings
Case study of an adolescent girl at risk for diabetes | Colorado
Outcomes (Increases)
Compared to her baseline, increased trait mindfulness.
Outcomes (Decreases)
Decreased depression, insulin resistance, cortisol awakening response and reported overeating.
Resources (Research)
Dvořáková, K., Kishida, M., Li, J., Elavsky, S., Broderick, P. C., Agrusti, M. R., & Greenberg, M. T. (2017). Promoting healthy transition to college through mindfulness training with first-year college students: Pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of American College Health, 65(4), 259-267. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2017.1278605
Settings
Undergraduates | Pennsylvania
Outcomes (Increases)
Life Satisfaction, Sleep Quality
Outcomes (Decreases)
Anxiety, Depression, Lower Alcohol Peak, Fewer alcohol consequences
Resources (Research)
Eva, A. L., & Thayer, N. M. (2017). Learning to BREATHE: A pilot study of a mindfulness-based intervention to support marginalized youth. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 22(4), 580-591. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587217696928
Settings
17-20 yr old males in alternative High School | Washington
Outcomes (Increases)
Self-Esteem, ER, attention; Intervention was acceptable for these students.
Outcomes (Decreases)
Perceived Stress
Resources (Research)
Felver, J., Clawson, A., Morton, M., Brier-Kennedy, Janack, P., et al (2019). School-based mindfulness intervention supports adolescent resiliency: A randomized controlled pilot study International Journal of School & Educational Psychology 7 (sup1), 111-122.
Settings
Ethnically diverse, at-risk high school students | New York
Outcomes (Increases)
Stable increases in psychosocial resilience over time, compared to control students, who declined in resilience.
Outcomes (Decreases)
Resources (Research)
Frank, J. L., Broderick, P. C., Oh, Y., Mitra, J., Kohler, K., Schussler, D. L., Geier, C., Roeser, R. W., Berrena, E., Mahfouz, J., Levitan, J., & Greenberg, M. T. (2021). The effectiveness of a teacher-delivered mindfulness-based curriculum on adolescent social-emotional and executive functioning. Mindfulness, 12(5), 1234-1251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-021-01594-9
Settings
Public high school students in Pennsylvania who received L2B as part of health curriculum, delivered by regular ed teachers.
Outcomes (Increases)
Improvements in executive functions included greater selective attention to tasks and improved resistance to distraction as measured on computerized tasks compared to controls.
Outcomes (Decreases)
No changes on self-report measures.
Resources (Research)
Fung, J., Guo, S., Jin, J., Bear, L., & Lau, A. (2016). A pilot randomized trial evaluating a school-based mindfulness intervention for ethnic minority youth. Mindfulness, 7(4), 819-828. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0519-7
Settings
Public High School | California
Outcomes (Increases)
Outcomes (Decreases)
Parent-reported behavior problems; Student reported internalizing problems, emotion suppression); 3 month follow-up
Resources (Research)
Fung, J., Kim, J. J., Jin, J., Chen, G., Bear, L., & Lau, A. S. (2019). A randomized trial evaluating school-based mindfulness intervention for ethnic minority youth: Exploring mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-0425-7
Settings
9th grade Latino & Asian students with elevated mood symptoms | California
Outcomes (Increases)
Outcomes (Decreases)
Perceived Stress and Internalizing Symptoms; reduced rumination, avoidance fusion, and expressive suppression.
Resources (Research)
Kerr, S.L., Lucas, L., DiDomenico, G., Mishra, V., Stanton, B., Shivde, G., Pero, A., Runyen, M. & Terry, G. (2017): Is mindfulness training useful for pre-service teachers? An exploratory investigation, Teaching Education, DOI: 10.1080/10476210.2017.1296831
Settings
Pre-Service Teachers in University | Pennsylvania
Outcomes (Increases)
Emotional clarity and improved regulation of negative emotions
Outcomes (Decreases)
Shielded from increases in depression.
Resources (Research)
Levitan, J., Schussler, D. L., Mahfouz, J., Frank, J. L., Kohler, K. M., Broderick, P. C., Mitra, J., Oh, Y., Berrena, E., & Greenberg, M. T. (2018). Evaluating Student Cognitive and Social-Emotional Growth During a High School Mindfulness Course Using Mixed-Method Design. Sage Research Methods Cases. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526446428
Settings
High School Students | Pennsylvania
Outcomes (Increases)
Qualitative analyses explained the changes perceived by students following a mindfulness intervention.
Outcomes (Decreases)
Resources (Research)
Mahfouz, J., Levitan, J., Schussler, D., Broderick, T., Dvorakova, K., Argusti, M., & Greenberg, M. (2018). Ensuring college student success through mindfulness-based classes: Just breathe. The College Student Affairs Journal, 36(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1353/csj.2018.0000
Settings
College Students | Pennsylvania
Outcomes (Increases)
Students in the mindfulness program reported improvements in organization, time management, health, emotional awareness, relationships and self-compassion.
Outcomes (Decreases)
Resources (Research)
Metz, S. M., Frank, J. L., Reibel, D., Cantrell, T., Sanders, R., & Broderick, P. C. (2013). The effectiveness of the learning to BREATHE program on adolescent emotion regulation. Research in Human Development, 10(3), 252-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2013.818488
Settings
Public High School | Pennsylvania
Outcomes (Increases)
Self-efficacy; Emotion regulation
Outcomes (Decreases)
Perceived Stress; Somatic Symptoms
Resources (Research)
Rawlett, K. E., Friedmann, E., & Thomas, S. A. (2019). Mindfulness based intervention with an attentional comparison group in at risk young adolescents: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Integrative Medicine Research, 8(2), 101-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2019.04.002
Settings
At-risk girls in boarding school | Maryland
Outcomes (Increases)
Both mindfulness and discussion (attention) groups showed improved positive affect. This randomized controlled trial demonstrated the feasibility of a mindfulness intervention for this vulnerable group.
Outcomes (Decreases)
Resources (Research)
Schussler, D. L., Oh, Y., Mahfouz, J., Levitan, J., Frank, J. L., Broderick, P. C., & Mitra, J. L. (2021). Stress and well-being: A systematic case study of adolescents’ experiences in a mindfulness-based program. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 30(2), 431-446. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01864-5
Settings
High School students in Pennsylvania
Outcomes (Increases)
Particularly for high-risk adolescents and those who integrated program practices into their daily lives, L2B reduced internalizing symptoms.
Outcomes (Decreases)
Especially for those who practiced mindfulness, program impacted stress management and emotion regulation.
Resources (Research)
Shomaker, L. B., Bruggink, S., Pivarunas, B., Skoranski, A., Foss, J., Chaffin, E., Dalager, S., Annameier, S., Quaglia, J., Brown, K. W., Broderick, P., & Bell, C. (2017). Pilot randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based group intervention in adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes with depressive symptoms. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 32, 66-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2017.04.003
Settings
12-17 yr old girls at risk for depression & diabetes | Colorado
Outcomes (Increases)
CBT and L2B were both found to be acceptable
Outcomes (Decreases)
L2B participants showed greater reductions in insulin resistance at posttest and 6 month follow-up compared to CBT participants.
Resources (Research)
Shomaker, L. B., Berman, Z., Burke, M., Annameier, S. K., Pivarunas, B., Sanchez, N., Smith, A. D., Hendrich, S., Riggs, N. R., Legget, K. T., Cornier, M., Melby, C., Johnson, S. A., & Lucas-Thompson, R. (2019). Mindfulness-based group intervention in adolescents at-risk for excess weight gain: A randomized controlled pilot study. Appetite, 140, 213-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.05.022
Settings
Adolescents at risk for obesity were randomized to a mindfulness-based (n = 29) or health education control group (n = 25) to assess feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness intervention.
Outcomes (Increases)
Outcomes (Decreases)
Mindfulness intervention was feasible and acceptable to youth for preventing weight gain.
Resources (Research)
Shomaker, L. B., Pivarunas, B., Annameier, S. K., Gulley, L., Quaglia, J., Brown, K. W., Broderick, P., & Bell, C. (2019). One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial Piloting a Mindfulness-Based Group Intervention for Adolescent Insulin Resistance. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1040. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01040
Settings
One-year follow up of RCT of mindfulness intervention for adolescent insulin resistance | Colorado
Outcomes (Increases)
Outcomes (Decreases)
At one-year follow-up, both depression and insulin resistance decreased in L2B group compared to CBT group.
Resources (Research)
Tang, R., Broderick, P. C., Bono, T., Dvoráková, K., & Braver, T. S. (2020). A college first-year mindfulness seminar to enhance psychological well-being and cognitive function. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/19496591.2020.1740719
Settings
College Students | Missouri
Outcomes (Increases)
Overall improvements in psychological health of first year college students in mindfulness elective.
Outcomes (Decreases)
Cognitive benefits of mindfulness elective were small and mixed.
Resources (Theoretical, Technological, and Trainer-Related)
Broderick, P. C., Frank, J. L., Berrena, E., Schussler, D. L., Kohler, K., Mitra, J., Khan, L., Levitan, J., Mahfouz, J., Shields, L., . . . Greenberg, M. T. (2019). Evaluating the quality of mindfulness instruction delivered in school settings: Development and validation of a teacher quality observational rating scale. Mindfulness, 10(1), 36-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0944-x
Broderick, P.C. & Frank, J.L. (2014), Learning to BREATHE: An intervention to foster mindfulness in adolescence. New Directions for Youth Development, 142 (DOI:10.1002/yd.20095)
Broderick, P.C., & Jennings, P.A. (2012). Mindfulness for adolescents: a promising approach to supporting emotion regulation and preventing risky behavior. New Directions for Youth Development, 136:111-26, doi: 10.1002/yd.20042. PMID: 23359447.
Frank, J. L., Reibel, D., Broderick, P., Cantrell, T., & Metz, S. (2015). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction on educator stress and well-being: Results from a pilot study. Mindfulness, 6(2), 208-216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-013-0246-2
Lucas-Thompson, R. G., Lucas-Thompson, R. G., Broderick, P. C., Broderick, P. C., Coatsworth, J. D., Coatsworth, J. D., Smyth, J. M., & Smyth, J. M. (2019). New avenues for promoting mindfulness in adolescence using mHealth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(1), 131-139. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1256-4
Lucas-Thompson, R., Seiter, N., Broderick, P. C., Coatsworth, J. D., Henry, K. L., McKernan, C. J., & Smyth, J. M. (2019). Moving 2 mindful (M2M) study protocol: Testing a mindfulness group plus ecological momentary intervention to decrease stress and anxiety in adolescents from high-conflict homes with a mixed-method longitudinal design. BMJ Open, 9(11), e030948-e030948. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030948
Lucas-Thompson, R. G., Rayburn, S., Seiter, N. S., Broderick, P. C., Smyth, J. M., Coatsworth, J. D., & Henry, K. L. (2020). Learning to BREATHE "plus": A multi-modal adaptive supplement to an evidence-based mindfulness intervention for adolescents. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 579556-579556. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.579556
Lucas-Thompson, R. G., Seiter, N. S., Broderick, P. C., & Coatsworth, J. D. (2020). Mindfulness interventions to reduce impact of interparental conflict on adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(2), 392-402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01599-y
Key Points
Describes the development of a teacher rating scale called Teaching Mindfulness in Education Observation Scale (TMEOS). Supplementary material available.
Describes theoretical rationale for L2B.
Reviews developmental issues of adolescents and their relatedness to mindfulness training.
Describes an adapted teacher-mindfulness program offered in conjunction with L2B workshops that demonstrated physical and emotional benefits for teachers.
Discusses the development of the L2B PLUS app to support at-home practice of mindfulness between L2B sessions.
Provides rationale and plan for development of L2B PLUS.
Discusses the multi-modal structure of the L2B PLUS app.
Discusses the rationale for developing an app to support students from high conflict homes.

Learning to BREATHE (L2B) is a sequenced mindfulness program that can be used to introduce adolescents to mindfulness and its practice. L2B is appropriate for many settings (e.g. schools, universities, clinical settings, after-school programs, residential facilities, etc.). CASEL includes Learning to BREATHE as 1 out of only 4 programs in the mindfulness category that meets their standards for evidence-based programs.

More detail about all the publications, including full text copies, is available by clicking the Short Research Summaries link.

Another link, “What consumers should know about  choosing a mindfulness program explains the importance of research  in program selection for schools, clinical practices or other institutions and workplaces. L2B’s Facebook Page is the place for most current updates about L2B.

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